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Month: February 2016

Water Resources Conflict

Egypt opened a new phase of conflict over water between upstream and downstream countries, as well as transit countries. Conflict is likely to print atheist and the twentieth century, if not the Member States of the UN to agree on binding to share common water basins and cross-border international standards. And entered the differences between the Nile Basin countries «on the river the longest division in the world, the Is Copy Buffet Software A Scam confrontation stage, after a third round of negotiations between them failed to Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt, and announced upstream of Seven countries last week, they will sign an agreement for the framework ignores downstream Egypt, Sudan and reduces their share of the water, but Cairo has threatened to «strongly respond» to any step affecting the «historical rights».

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Real Economy

And adheres to the upstream countries seven to reduce Egypt’s share in the new agreement after the expiration of the agreement, which Britain signed with Cairo, on behalf of these countries in 1929 and ensure its 55.5 billion cubic meters, more than half of the Nile water, as well as the right to veto any water projects in upstream countries. It insists Egypt is currently backed by Sudan, to retain its share and make the approval of the water projects unanimously ».

Egypt’s case is not the only one in the world, in the scope of the scarcity of water that does not stop the expansion and increase, double the impact of demographic growth and climate change, it is feared that multiplies wars over water and are shared processing, seized by force.

It has become common water between countries and cross-border sharing, is a case of pressure, the management of these water resources and is considered one of the sticking points in the last World Water Forum held in Istanbul in March 2009. The Is Copy Buffet Software A Scam recognition «water right» was discussed by the States participating in the Istanbul forum as « the first of the obligation to submit to disadvantaged countries. »

The sharing of the biggest challenge for the beneficiary countries shared water resources, as there is in the world’s 260 water basin shared by two states and more. And live in their regions for 40 percent of the world’s population. There are also hundreds of shared groundwater basins. A striking example is that the 14 countries sharing the European Danube, and 11 countries are involved in the rivers Nile, Niger, and 9 countries share the Amazon, and the three countries in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and ideals of the Jordan River.

And control situational or structural scarcity in many the most important of the Mediterranean basin countries regions, the Middle East, northern China, South Asia and the southwestern United States, so that exacerbated competition between users. The cause is a just sharing of the quantities of water as a political yet, as is the case between Turkey and Iraq, Israel and the occupied territories, Egypt, Sudan and the source of the Nile.
And the movement of «Le Monde» French, in a special issue titled «geostrategic budget» for the year 2010, that the American Research Foundation «Pacific Onstutiot» counts dozens of conflicts over water since 2500 BC. And it expects to double as much as the need to feed the growing cities and industries and the development of hydro-electric production and the expansion of irrigated agriculture. »

Others considered in contrast, that the water was an element of cooperation between the states and continue in this direction. And he tallied a mosque «O’Regan» US, not counting customized navigation agreements 0.145 global treaty on the subject and felt «that the need for water did not cause war never» «says President of the World Water Council Loic Fauchon, despite the use of force, sometimes against the upstream countries Larry Landers Profits Unlimited System Review or against the downstream countries (Turkey).

The waters also confirms Researchers at «the London School of Land Economique geopolitical» specialize in the subject, «were not motivation alone armed conflict, but always sets policy on water, among the more extensive data». The pressures between states often characterized, according to the saying, latent hostility, or relations are full of conflict or absence of situational Larry Landers Profits Unlimited System cooperation.

And it controls the poor of justice in the sharing of water relative to the strength of each of the beneficiaries of them. In most of the time a professor at the «King’s College London» Tony Allen, there is inconsistency between some of the participating countries or not equivalent in strength, some weak and some strong say. And vulnerable are Her watery bleeding. The case months of Israel-trapping water and
Push Money APP Reviews benefit the expense of the Palestinians on the land owners. The level of consumption per Palestinian in the occupied territory to 75 liters of water per day compared to 300 liters for the Israelis and one hundred global minimum average liter, according to the World Health Organization.

Conflicts do not stop at the water-sharing at this level, but included water world Jean Margate, construction of dams among the causes of conflicts over water, because dams downstream towards the river system crashes lowering the amount of running water. Pat and groundwater investment poses problems especially «it is not visible sources can be consumed by thousands of investors without their others feel.»

Water pump on the side of the border affects the level of water in the other. Exploitation of excessive groundwater inside the Turkish border, the Syrian cause depletion of water resources.

In front of these problems, especially among the countries did not know earlier clashes, but may
Google Trader Software issue of water scarcity, everything leads to the need to strengthen cooperation in order to avoid the development of conflicts, and seek global efforts to combat drought and reduce pollution, especially that competition often leads to over-exploitation of water and to destruction of aquatic ecosystem. Of the 260 basins hydraulically joint 157 does not have any cooperative framework. When there is a framework for cooperation, it looks like empty shells.

In the end, it is necessary to determine the rules to prevent deadly conflicts for water sharing, but the subject is not progressing. In a 1997 global treaty on water sharing and developed but not implemented because the signatories to the few.

Environment Between Hypotheses Disasters And Wars

Environment Between Hypotheses Disasters And Wars Developments overshadowed the global economic crisis and its repercussions, the repercussions of environmental differences after «half failed» Copenhagen climate conference late last year. Parallel and potential dangers of environmental degradation and climate change that did not exceed the size of the dangers resulting from the economic crisis. And combines complex Altronix scenarios hypothesis that the Earth’s population «commit suicide.» Anya is not suicide collective suicide, but slow to implement Yuklon nature poring over Tahedimha and commonly switch balances and make the climate heat and fuel melts the ice blocks formed over tens of thousands of years and achieved a climate equinoxes and punish fixed chapters on time in general.

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Real Economy

The most optimistic scenario stems from the global consensus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide bridleth warmer temperatures within two degrees natural rate of only up to 2050, a scenario that is supposed to be called the green industry and fostered. In spite of this notice, observers and scholars of geology, nature and climate trend towards the rapid melting of polar ice caps and Copy Buffet Software Review and flow of water raises the midst of the Sea covering the islands and sweeping the shores of countries and cause massive displacement of population and its concentration in the lowest areas of land. In most scenarios disastrous disappearance of large areas of the rainforest and the mouths of major rivers such as the Nile, Ganges and Amazon and the Congo, to the intensification of desertification, shrinking fertile agricultural areas and the expansion of the scope of the drought and the intensification of hunger and deaths due to diseases caused by climate change, with the multiplication of the number of natural disasters caused by hurricanes, experts note that the annual rates doubled once in two areas that are exposed to it.

Natural shift obligations, change in economic reality, between the necessities imposed by the reality of natural disasters and changing rates of heat and consequently provide a fertile land and water, and the securing of new capabilities in the areas that were difficult to use as a result of the accumulation of snow above the surface.
1000 Dollar Days wealth of precious metal ranging from oils and gases and the end of precious or constituent heavy industries minerals such as uranium.

He will lead a natural shift in the first interface to the scarcity of water, began in large areas of Africa, India, China and the Middle East, of the latter signals to the depletion of ground water and turning the rain to central hurricanes devastating not fed or supply the springs and Binary Options Secretscientists that this scarcity will lead not only to wars between upstream and downstream countries, or at least to the differences (the Nile, the Tigris and the Euphrates, the Lebanon, Jordan, and others), but to the internal conflicts in access to water with declining resources and increasing displaced or uprooted from coastal areas or islands in the seas.

And to the scarcity of water is added scarcity of biodiversity on land and sea and in the streams of water, which leads to diminished food resources in a time of accelerating population growth poses in 50 years pyramid of nine billion people do not last them the earth’s resources in their natural state, or as they were a century ago, so how about if shrunk fertile areas?

But the fate of the planet’s pessimism leads to attempts to rescue still in its infancy, but entitled to the doubled compared to the effort to reduce global warming. And lurking Observers industrial experiments environmentally friendly managed to benefit from them and expand them despite the difficulty of circulation, which may cause damage to inhuman and caused the expansion of Wells Investments LTD Binary Options production rising prices of food products. Resorting to the use of renewable energy from the sun, wind, water and the ground and even the safe use of the atom, inevitably reduce the pollution causing global warming. And help rehabilitate rainforest and planting areas prone to desertification or soil erosion, absorb tons of carbon from the air and rainwater embrace and corrected some aquifers. It is no secret that the UN agencies efforts in the search for sowing of grain in the forefront of wheat, corn and barley, they are compatible with the harsh nature such as heat, water scarcity, contributing to the use of this seed with the anticipated climatic conditions, knowing that the agricultural laboratories draw plants and assets and seed are compatible with Wells Investments Software upcoming climate.

The pivotal dilemma at the site of the developed countries, which was the key pillars of aid, grants and funds to poor countries or in need of growth. These countries global financial crisis has caused an economic recession cycle, looking how ZulanderHack financial obligations themselves to save before you help others and, consequently, that the countries least aid caused comply with the emission of greenhouse gases, equivalent to between one and two percent of global output!

From this point of environmental change threatens to cause a rift between the countries. It has become the subject of the environment swings between North and South, says Prof. in international relations Philippe Le Brister, between «green expansion» and «kidnapping environment» by the countries of the South.

Fear of green expand its trade and security dimensions. It could be to implement the goal of reducing carbon emissions in half by 2050, a significant impact on global trade and have an excuse for protectionist measures. Or lead to new trade agreements between the countries have caused most of the gases and the least.

On the other hand raises bet on climate change, security questions, as a result of the dangers caused by the warming of the planet, threaten regional and global stability (food shortages, rain coordinates, environmental) and migration. In 2007 the Security Council discussed the relationship between climate and security, was considered by the Group of 77 nations and movements and non-governmental Group of African States, in preparation in order to «environmental intervention».

And some of what affects the environment have repercussions cross-border, justified sending troops to restore environmental stability by order of the Push Money APP Binary Trading Security Council.

Basel 3 Are Laws To Prevent A New Financial Crisis?

Basel 3 Are Laws To Prevent A New Financial Crisis? The new rules, set by the heads of central banks and those responsible for the financial authorities in the Swiss city of Basel, last week, will become valid laws after approval by the meeting of the «G20» in November (November) this year. Among other amendments demanded by the leaders of the «G20» for approval at their next meeting:

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Binary Options

> Oversee more precise on the local and international banks.

> Centralized organization and unification of the derivatives market (Derivatives) by 2012.

> Get ratification for the establishment of investment hedge funds (Hedge Funds) that exceed a certain amount of capital funds, as these funds would be obliged to disclose their accounts to the supervisory authorities on a regular basis.

> Drafting a European law to organize the work

Private investment funds, which come from outside the EU, and is seeking investors from inside the Union.
> Unify laws «accounts and accounting» (Accounting) at the international level by the middle of next year.

> Enact legislation in the banks stopped granting incentives for workers and managers who stance sanctions the deals and loans to high-risk, especially if they are short-term.

> Register and organize the work of «credit rating agencies» (Credit Rating Agencies).

In the United States, it issued three largest banking regulators – the Federal Reserve and the insurance company on the Federal Deposit Currency and the Office of control – a joint statement in which it declared that the agreement is an important step in reducing the rates of future financial crises. As commented US Treasury Secretary, Timothy Geithner, the agreement saying: «We welcome this step on the road to a strong global financial reforms and look forward to reviewing the details of these proposed reforms with the requirements of global capitalism». For his part, the head of the European Central Bank, Jean-Claude Trichet, said that the agreement is «to strengthen the global capital standards, though the transition period arrangements will enable banks to meet the new requirements without reducing support economic recovery».

* Credit crunch is the reason

* Three years ago, the world had never heard «credit crunch» words (credit crunch), but today the term has entered the economic dictionaries. It means in short: a great shortage of liquidity at banks. Although economists have chosen a specific date for the beginning of the crisis (of 9 August 2007, when French bank announced a huge increase in interest rates on loans granted by the price), the beginning of the crisis was in the United States before the period from this long history. As economists always say: «When the United States sneezes, the rest of the world gets a cold.»

During the years between 2004 and 2006, the United States lifted the price of basic usefulness again and again, up from 1 per cent to 5.35 per cent. The result was that a large number of Americans failed to pay monthly on their loans, which they bought their homes premiums. Yet their failure to pay the start of the liquidity crisis in banks loomed, especially those that were granted loans of hundreds of thousands with ease, without checking the customer’s ability to repay these debts. In most cases, banks impose higher prices for the interest on these loans, which note that the owners can not get loans in the normal way and at normal interest rates.

* Easy lending and risks

* Of course, banks have been forced to endure these loan losses, known as «bad debts» or «bad debts». The loans are easily granted without the scrutiny of the financial capacity of the client grew and spread rapidly in the western markets, so that became known as the own «sub – prime», specializing in some banks. Perhaps prompting banks to facilitate the granting of loans is a competition among themselves to «kidnap customers from the market» before they go to another bank. Each bank was trying to get the largest number of customers, and then a larger share in the market.

With the beginning of 2007 the size of «risky loans» reached its highest level ever, prompting some financial experts to warn of the danger of lax lending policy, and the potential impact on the stability of the financial system in general. This is what actually happened in the spring of that year.

In April 2007 announced «New Century Financial» US, which specializes in the undemanding loans, bankrupt institution. This was the first indication to the world that lax loan market sub – prime already suffers from a serious crisis. But in September 2008 it announced the bank «Lehman Brothers» American giant, aged 150 years of bankruptcy, the same day announced «Merrill Lynch» Bank, which is not as vast and important as he accepted an offer from «Bank of America» to seize it. He said our advertising on two of the worst days of the crisis and the beginning of the truth, because of the size and the nobility of the two banks.

In this regard, he said the «Middle East» financial expert Allen, from «HSBC» Bank of the psychological factor is obvious is waning investors and traders and consumers’ confidence in the financial markets and the banking system in general. He added: «Who would have imagined that the large financial institutions, such as Bank (Lehman Brothers) and (Merrill Lynch) Stthaoy». Lack of confidence in investors and individuals is not limited, but the banks themselves have become not trust each other, so it has tightened lending policy among themselves .. and this is the reason for the problem already. Banks have become afraid to lend to any bank and then discover the next morning that he’s in store for «misfortunes» among its books of account, and it may fail to repay, or even fall apart, between overnight.

For his part, Kelly Turner endorsed the «First Action» Finance Corporation, the «Middle East» The view of the Tailai, adding that restoring confidence usually takes a long time even after cleared crisis «just like the fear does not come from the hearts of people in the wake of the exposure to the hurricane, even after they leave their hurricane long weeks. » This is what the new Basel rules seek to achieve now, any restoration of confidence in the banking system.


* Is a free market economy needs to see his theories?

* The idea of ​​a free economy on the lack of state intervention in the market. It is intended not to intervene here is that the state does not intervene as a seller or a buyer, but, of course, retain its role as an observer and lawmaker for phrase economic activity in the country. Contrary to the idea of ​​a free economy, some states practiced the idea of ​​a centralized economy in which the state owns the means of production and large companies and public services and vital facilities, and of course there are some countries that have confused between the two systems, or what is known as the joint economy.

And through modern history, the United States has been leading the idea of ​​free market economy in which the state leaves the vast majority of economic activity to the private sector in accordance with the philosophy that «that the market adjusts itself.»

Even Europe, which also apply to a market economy, did not reach the level of the United States before it begins to allocations led Britain during the reign of former prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, in the eighties of the last century, when Europe began to sell companies that were owned by the State to the private sector. Britain, followed by Germany and France, which the state still owns two large companies and service facilities.

And despite the fact that Western Europe considers itself a capitalist basis, many of the ideas of socialism (a command economy) leaked after the First World War to the many corners of their economic activities, so that their economies have become a common economy between the private and public sectors. Of course, the degree of mixing that vary from state to state, France, for example, were more mixed than Britain, Germany, and the state in which more control of the economy from the private sector.

On the edge contrast to Europe, there were socialist countries (the Soviet, China and Eastern Europe), where countries have all the means of production, does not allow private any economic activity for the sector, the state-controlled central to all economic and financial activities, to some extent determine the currency exchange rate, but to identify vegetable prices in the market. In contrast, the state was in the United States do not have something, even companies vital facilities – such as water and electricity – was a private sector (unlike Western Europe, which was until recently the state owns these companies, but airlines and shuttle buses and public trains).

However, the financial rescue plan adopted by Western governments during the recent financial crisis is the biggest intervention of government authorities in the market since the crisis «Great Depression» in the thirties of the last century.

So it raised some Western economists fears that the country may be on the cusp of «the era of state contribution», which is a historic turning point size remains subject to the consequences of the application of the rescue plan and state ownership of the shares of a number of banks. Admittedly plan in which the government paid hundreds of billions (not a donation, but in return for shares in troubled companies), the State is the owner of large stakes in financial institutions and many companies, which means they will benefit from the profit and loss which these companies in the future, meaning that the state Her business interests will be in the market to compete with other companies with private ownership of one hundred per cent.

Government rescue plans also put two conditions are important for the contribution of the state in private companies, namely First: not to be Treasury contributor to the others as soon as they enter the capital of the company, with the benefit of specific guarantees to ensure not losing the size of their participation in the event of increased capital of the company or merger with another company . Secondly, that the state can not be lost. After five years will be on the US president then submit a draft law imposing fees on the financial sector equivalent financial losses to the state, in the event of loss. Thus, the state becomes a contributor to the market, and preferential terms. While countries justify these actions, arguing that the money you will use in the purchase of these shares is in money, and must be protected from loss, some economists fear that this represents a fundamental shift in the role of the state in a free economy, especially that of the United States has argued a number of countries around the world, to persuade them to lift protection for its products, and open their markets to free competition.